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Gynecology

Birth Control and Prevention Methods

Family planning is the ability to have as many children as desired at any time. Every family has the right to have as many children as they want, but in frequent pregnancies, maternal health is seriously damaged, infant development in the womb is affected, the rate of disability and the risk of maternal and infant mortality increase.

Today, there are extremely safe and effective methods developed for both women and men. Developing modern medicine offers many different methods for each individual's own needs. Despite this, a great majority of couples in the world and in our country are still trying to apply birth control with traditional methods that are extremely low in efficiency and reliability, and which are extremely harmful in terms of health. The factor that causes this situation, unfortunately, is that couples do not have sufficient information about birth control and try to protect them with false information.

The fact that women take a more active role in business life reduces couples' desire to have children or causes them to delay making this decision for a while. Without an effective birth control method, the result is unfortunately an unwanted pregnancy and abortion.

The aim here is to inform couples about birth control, to help them choose the most appropriate method and to try to answer any questions they have in mind.

The goals of family planning:

Protecting maternal health and preventing maternal deaths

  • Ensuring the birth of healthy babies
  • Preventing unwanted pregnancies
  • Preventing risky pregnancies
  • Providing a happier and healthier sexual life between couples
  • Educating individuals and families on this issue


Natural protection methods:
Calendar method:
This method is used by not having an intercourse for 7-10 days before/after the day of ovulation or to provide additional protection by using the barrier method during this period. The exact determination of the ovulation date should be calculated as accurate as possible. For this, basal body temperature measurements or cervical mucus monitoring is required.

Retraction method:
This method is based on the logic that when the man is ready to ejaculate, the sperm ejaculated outside of the vagina.

Barrier methods:
Male condom:
It is one of the most used methods. It is attached to the erect penis before contact with the vagina. Its biggest feature is that it partially prevents diseases transmitted by sexual intercourse.
The female condom:
It is a thin ring made of polyurethane and is inserted into the vagina. It covers the entire vaginal inner wall and cervix. It is not useful.
Spermicides:
They are in the form of gel, foam or filth and prevent pregnancy by killing the sperm.
Diaphragm:
They are in the form of a flexible ring and are used with spermicides. It covers the cervix. It should be placed 3 hours before intercourse.
Cervical cap:
It is small in size and made of latex. It prevents pregnancy by containing spermicide cream and closing the cervix mouth.
Contraceptive sponge:
It is a sponge made of polyurethane and contains spermicide. It is inserted into the vagina before intercourse.
Spiral:
It is a substance made of plastic that contains hormones or copper in it. It is placed by the doctor. It does not prevent the passage of sperm. It prevents the fertilized egg from settling into the uterus.


Hormonal methods:
They contain estrogen and progesterone or just progesterone. They prevent pregnancy by preventing ovulation, thickening cervical mucus or disrupting the structure of the uterine tissue.

Birth control pills:
It is taken orally by the woman every day and in the recommended order..

3 months neeedle (Depo-Provera):
They are regularly injected into the buttock every 3 months. They only contain progesterone.

Monthly needles (mesygina):
They are done regularly once a month from the hip. They contain estrogen and progesterone.

Subcutaneous implants:
It is placed under the forearm skin and secretes progesterone for 3 years and prevents pregnancy.

Vaginal ring (nuva ring):
It is put into the vagina for 3 weeks, then it is removed for 1 week and this cycle is repeated. It prevents pregnancy by secreting hormones.

Birth control tape (Erva):
Contains hormones. It acts like birth control pills. It is attached to the skin and removed after 3 weeks. 1 week break is given. In the meantime, menstruation happens. The same cycle is continued.
Surgical methods:
Male sterilization:
Sperm-carrying tubes are connected. It is known as a vasectomy.

Female sterilization (Tying the tubes) (Tubal ligation):
Sperm passage is prevented by tying tubes with laparoscopy (closed method) or open surgery after birth or when desired. It can also be applied during Caesarean.

  • Op.Dr. Zeynep Taşargöl
    Obstetrics and Gynecology Specialist

    You can send me your questions and comments about Birth Control and Prevention Methods via this field. The answers provided are advisory. You need to be examined by your doctor for diagnosis and treatment.